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TOPIC – 1
London in the 19th and 20th Century
- As opposed to previous human settlements, towns and cities that first formed along river valleys, like Ur, Nippur, and Mohenjodaro, were greater in scale. Later cities expanded when they could bolster a diverse range of non-food producers.
- Metropolises, which combine political and economic activities for an entire region and support very large people, range widely in size and complexity.
- Industrialization transformed the way urbanisation occurred in the modern era by drawing many people from the countryside to the cities to work in the textile factories.
- Since the establishment of the textile mills in the late 18th century, Leeds and Manchester in Britain were the country’s first modern cities.
- In England and Wales in 1750, one in every nine individuals resided in London. With a population of about 675,000, it was a massive city that was still growing.
- In the 19th century, London was thought to be a metropolis of clerks and retailers, tiny masters and skilled artisans, a burgeoning population of sweaty and semi-skilled workers, soldiers and servants, casual labourers, street vendors, and beggars.
- The production of automobiles and electrical items began in London during the First World War (1914–18).
- As London expanded, crime became a major issue. The streets of London were filled with con artists, pickpockets, and small-time criminals.
- Initially, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, women worked in factories, but as technology advanced, they were forced out of the industrial sector and into the domestic sphere.
- Parents frequently forced their kids into menial jobs. In The Bitter Cry of Outcast, a preacher named Andrew Mearns explained why committing crimes was more lucrative than working in tiny, poorly paid companies.
- After the Industrial Revolution, there were many factories built, but the plant owners did not offer migrant employees housing options, so they were housed in tenements.
- The lack of suitable housing, sanitation, ventilation, overcrowding, etc. led to a gradual increase in urban poverty, which became a serious issue for the affluent groups.
- There have been efforts to minimise pollution, green the open areas, decongest neighbourhoods, and landscape the city in an effort to keep London clean.
- By transporting huge crowds of people into and out of the city, the London Underground railway helped to partially resolve the housing crisis.
- On January 10, 1863, a portion of London’s underground railroad between Paddington and Farrington Street opened to the public for the first time in history.
- People were initially apprehensive about riding the subway, and those who did so reported feeling “near-dead from asphyxiation and heat.”
- This structure resulted in a more dispersed population within the city. A robust train network and better-planned suburbs made it possible for many people to live outside of central London and commute to work.
- In the metropolis, both men and women were urged to embrace a new sense of independence and to be free from the communal ideals that characterised the smaller rural towns.
- The urban family has been reduced to smaller groups by the 20th century.
- For the wealthy Brits, a “London Season” had gradually developed.
- Opera, theatre, and classical music concerts, among other cultural events, were planned.
- Large-scale entertainment developed for the working class; they gathered in pubs to socialise, trade news, and occasionally even plan political acts. To give citizens a sense of history and to instil a sense of pride in the accomplishments of the British, libraries, art galleries, and museums were constructed.
- London’s underprivileged citizens rioted in 1887, calling for an end to their dreadful living conditions. The Bloody Sunday of November 1887 demonstration was ruthlessly put down by the police.
- Thousands of dockworkers in London went on strike in 1889 and marched through the city. To have the dockworkers’ union recognised, a 12-day strike was called.
- Politics in the city was abandoned as a result of the people’s numerous demands and strikes.
The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Notes
- [ Part 1] The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
- [ Part 3] The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes
- [Part 2] The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes
- Urbanization : the process of a town or city growing.
- Individualism : an ideology that prioritises an individual’s well-being over the welfare of society.
- Metropolis : It refers to the national or regional capital or largest city.
- Tenements : Cheap, frequently dangerous one-room lodging for migrant workers.
- Asphyxiation : Suffocation brought on by a lack of oxygen
- Temperance Movement : social reform
- 1880 : London had a 4 million-person population.
- 1880 : The underground railway system was substantially expanded.
- 1887 : On November 13, 1887, a riot known as “Bloody Sunday” took place in London.
- 1889 : Strike of Dockworkers.
TOPIC – 2
Bombay in the 19th and 20th Century
Quick Review of Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
- Under colonial control, India’s rate of urbanisation was modest.
- Indian towns did not grow in the nineteenth century, in contrast to Western Europe.
- These urban people were primarily from the three cities that make up the Presidency.
- These cities had multiple purposes; they housed important ports, warehouses, residences, offices, and army barracks in addition to educational facilities, museums, and libraries.
- India’s capital city was Bombay. It was a collection of seven islands that fell under Portuguese rule.
- The East India Company relocated to Bombay from Surat, which served as its main western port.
- In 1819, Bombay was chosen to serve as the Bombay Presidency’s capital.
- Large groups of traders, bankers, artisans, and shop owners moved to Bombay with the expansion of the cotton and opium trades.
- In Bombay, the first cotton textile mill was founded in 1854.
- Up to the 20th century, Bombay was the hub of two important railway junctions and dominated India’s maritime trade.
- The city of Bombay was crowded. From the beginning, Bombay did not develop in accordance with any plan; homes, particularly in the Fort region, were dotted with gardens.
- By the middle of the 1850s, there was a severe housing and water shortage due to the city’s unplanned, rapid growth.
- Compared to the wealthier Parse, Muslims, and upper class traders, more than 70% of working people resided in Bombay’s densely packed chawls.
- Chawls were multi-story buildings that had been constructed in the “original” areas of the city.
- Each chawl was partitioned into more compact one-room tenements without private restrooms.
- Because of high rents and the proximity of filthy gutters, privies, buffalo stables, etc., people had to keep their rooms windows closed even when it was humid outside.
- Despite the lack of water, the inhabitants maintained their homes quite clean. Due to the modest size of the homes, many different activities including cooking, washing, and sleeping took place in the streets and neighbourhoods.
- In the mill neighbourhoods, caste and family groups were led by a figure like a village headman.
- It was considerably harder for those who belonged to the “depressed classes” to secure lodgings. Many chawls kept people from lower classes out.
- The City of Bombay Improvement Trust was founded in 1898. It centred on removing less affluent residences from the city’s core.
- Bombay has historically struggled with urban growth due to a lack of available land.
- In 1784, the first project for the city’s growth was under way. The large sea wall, which stopped Bombay’s low-lying regions from flooding, was built with the support of Governor William Hornby of Bombay.
- The Back Bay Reclamation Company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from Malabar Hill’s summit to Colaba’s terminus in 1864.
- The Bombay Port Trust completed a successful reclamation project by constructing a dry dock between 1914 and 1918 and used the earth removed to build the 22-acre Ballard Estate. The renowned Marine Drive in Bombay was subsequently built.
- Bombay is perceived by many as a “mayapuri,” or “city of dreams,” despite its extreme crowdedness and challenging living conditions.
- In the Hanging Gardens in Bombay, Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar produced India’s first motion picture in 1896.
- Bombay had established itself as India’s cinema hub by 1925, creating movies for the entire country. Bombay films have significantly helped to create a picture of the city that combines slums and celebrity homes, dream and reality.
- The ecosystem and ecology have suffered everywhere where cities have grown.
- Large amounts of trash and waste products contaminated the air and water, and excessive noise started to become a part of urban life.
- Calcutta was no exception to air pollution. Grey smoke was inhaled by the locals, especially during the winter.
- A large population that relied on dung and wood for fuel in their daily lives led to high pollution levels. However, businesses and enterprises that employed coal-fired steam engines were the principal polluters.
- The Tollygunge rice mills switched to burning rice husk in place of coal around 1920. Later, industrial smoke was brought under control by Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission inspectors.
Flowchart of Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
Important Terms of Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
- Chawls : These multi-story buildings were constructed in Bombay’s “native” neighbourhoods.
- Mayapuri : A city of dreams.
- Depressed classes : term for “untouchables” and “lowest castes” (Dalits).
- Presidency cities :the administrative centres of British India’s Bombay, Bengal, and Madras presidencies.
- Green Belt : a piece of undeveloped land with vegetation and trees for preserving the city’s natural surroundings and habitation.
- Reclamation : reclamation of flooded or marshy areas for habitation.
Important Dates of Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
- 1784: In Bombay, land reclamation got started.
- 1810: London had one million residents.
- 1819:Following the Anglo-Maratha War, Bombay was chosen as the Bombay Presidency’s capital.
- 1847 and 1853: Both the 1847 and 1853 Smoke Abatement Acts were passed.
- 1851: Bombay was the location of the first cotton textile mill in India.
- 1865:Arthur Crawford was appointed as the first municipal commissioner of Bombay.
- 1898: It was decided to create the Bombay Improvement Trust.
- 1901: According to the census, 80% of Bombay’s residents live in one-room homes.
- 1913: The first feature film produced in India was “Raja Harish Chandra” by Dada Saheb Phalke.
- 1918: To keep rentals affordable, the Bombay Rent Control Act was passed.
- 1920: Tollygunge’s rice mills started using rice husk as fuel instead of coal to cut down on industrial smog.
- 1925: India’s first film hub was Bombay.
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