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- A new economic system known as “globalisation” has been developing over the past 50 years.
- Travelers, traders, priests, and pilgrims have travelled great distances since antiquity for the purpose of seeking information, opportunities, and spiritual fulfilment, as well as to flee oppression.
- The pre-modern commerce and cultural ties that existed across far-flung regions of the world are well-illustrated by the Silk Roads.
- The term “silk routes” refers to the significance of Chinese silk cargoes travelling along this route for export to the West.
- Culture and trade have always been intertwined.
- With the introduction of the humble potato, the impoverished in Europe started to eat better and live longer. Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the countries they travelled.
- When a disease decimated the potato harvest in the middle of the 1840s, Ireland’s poorest peasants were so dependent on them that thousands perished from starvation.
- European seafarers successfully navigated the western ocean to America as well as a sea route to Asia.
- Silver from mines in what is now Peru and Mexico, as well as other precious metals, contributed to Europe’s wealth and supported its trade with Asia. By the middle of the sixteenth century, the conquest and colonisation of America by the Portuguese and Spanish had officially begun.
- The most potent weapon used by the Spanish conquerors was the smallpox virus that they carried on them.
- The early people of America had no immunity to these diseases because of their extensive isolation. Particularly smallpox proven to be a lethal murderer.
- In Europe, hunger and poverty were widespread until the nineteenth century. There were many dangerous diseases and crowded cities.
- China and India were two of the richest nations in the world up to the early 18th century. They dominated Asian trade as well.
- China is said to have cut off communication with other countries and retreated into isolation starting in the 15th century, though.
The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Notes
- [ Part 1] The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
- [ Part 3] The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes
- [Part 2] The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes
Main Points of The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes PDF
- The declining importance of China and the increasing significance of the Americas caused the centre of world trade to slowly shift westward.
- Europe has since become the hub of global trade.
- Complex interactions between economic, political, social, cultural, and technological factors changed societies and reshaped international relations.
- The need for food grains in Britain had expanded as a result of the increase in population from the late 18th century.
- The government also put restrictions on the import of corn in response to lobbying from landowner groups.
- The “Corn Laws” were the name given to the laws that permitted the government to carry out this action. Food could be brought into Britain for less money once the Corn Laws were repealed than it could be produced there.
- Railroads were required to connect the agricultural areas with the ports. It was necessary to construct new harbours and to occupy the land, which necessitated the construction of residences and settlements.
- Each of these tasks requires both labour and capital. Money poured in from financial hubs like London.
- More migration occurred as a result of the need for labour in countries like America and Australia, where there was a shortage of workers.
- In the 19th century, about 50 million individuals left Europe for America and Australia in search of a better life.
- A global agricultural economy had developed by 1890. The British Indian Government constructed an irrigation system to convert semi-desert wastelands into productive agricultural lands where wheat and cotton could be grown for export.
- Without the telegraph, steamships, and railroads, the nineteenth-century world would not have undergone the changes it did.
- Thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers worked on plantations, in mines, and on international road and railroad construction projects during the 19th century.
- In India, indentured labourers were employed under written agreements. The majority of Indian indentured labourers originated in what are now eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India, and the arid parts of Tamil Nadu.
- The Caribbean islands, particularly Trinidad, Guyana, and Surinam, Mauritius, and Fiji, were the principal destinations for Indian indentured workers.
- It has been said that the 19th-century indenture system was a “new system of slavery.” Indian nationalist activists started criticising the indentured labour system as harsh and cruel in the early 1900s. In 1921, it was eliminated.
Glimpses of India Summaries
Important Points of The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes [Part 1]
- Among the numerous organisations of bankers and businessmen who supported export agriculture in Central and Southeast Asia were the Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars.
- Indian businessmen and financiers also went to Africa after European invaders.
- Industrialists pushed the government to limit cotton imports and support domestic industries as British cotton production increased with the advent of industrialization.
- The import of cloth into Britain was subject to tariffs. As a result, the flow of fine Indian cotton started to decrease.
- For long years, indigo used for fabric dyeing was another significant export. Indian consumers were inundated with British goods.
- British imports from India were far less expensive than British exports to India. Britain therefore enjoyed a “trade surplus” with India.
- Britain exploited this surplus to offset its trade deficits with other nations, i.e., nations from which it imported more than it exported.
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Important Terms of The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes [Part 1]
- Global (World Wide) : involving every nation on earth.
- Globalisation :integrating a nation’s economy with the economies of other nations while allowing for unrestricted commerce, investment, and labour.
- Silk Route : The Path That Traders Took to Transport Silk Shipments From China to the West.
- Cowri : A Hindi Term for “Sea Shells” These Were Used as Money in the Ancient World.
- Coolies : In the Caribbean Islands, Indentured Indian Workers Were Known as Coolies.
- Corn Laws : Corn Imports Were Subject to Restrictions Under British Legislation.
- Dissenter : One Who Rejects Conventional Ideas and Ways of Doing Things.
- Indentured labour : A Bonded Worker Who Has Agreed to Labour for an Employer for a Set Period of Time in Exchange for Payment of His Travel to Another Nation or Home.
Nationalism in India Notes
- [ Part 1] Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
- [ Part 2] Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
- [ Part 3] Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
Important Dates of Terms of The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes
- Around 3000 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization and modern-day West Asia were connected by a thriving maritime trade.
- Existence of silk routes from the BCE through the 15th century.
- Conquest and colonisation of America by the Portuguese and Spanish in the mid-16th century.
- Ireland’s potato famine, 1845–1849 Around 1,000,000 Irish people perished from starvation during this famine.
- The major European countries gathered in Berlin in 1885 to finalise their division of Africa.
- 1890 saw the emergence of a global agricultural economy.
- 1890 The cattle plague known as rinderpest had a terrifying effect on the local economy and the way of life for Africans.
- Rinderpest made it to Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892.
- Indian nationalist leaders started to criticise the practise of indentured labour migration in the 1900s as being harsh and cruel.
- The First World War lasted from 1914 to 1918.
- Indentured labour was abolished in 1921.
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