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The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
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Quick Overview of Nationalism In Europe Class 10
- Nationalism is an identification with the country. The nineteenth century saw a rise in nationalism in several European countries.
- The demise of feudalism and other factors are the causes of nationalism in Europe.
- The Renaissance’s initial stages. The European Renaissance encouraged new political theories
- The ideas of nationalism, liberty, equality, and fraternity predominated theEuropean society and politics in the nineteenth century.
French Revolution :
- The French Revolution of 1789 was a significant occasion that initiated Europe’s period of revolutions. The establishment of a constitutional monarchy and a significant diminution in royal and feudal privileges were the main results of the revolution.
- It opened the door for the accomplishment of greater objectives of national identity and national pride, also properly referred to as nationalism.
- Napoleon Bonaparte developed as a legendary historical figure and warrior following the French Revolution. He implemented a number of sensible administrative reforms, like as the Civil Code of 1804, sometimes referred to as the Napoleonic Code.
Advent of Liberalism in Europe :
- Europe was divided into a number of little kingdoms and principalities in the middle of the 18th century. There was no concept of nation-states at all. In Eastern and Central Europe, people belonged to a variety of ethnic groupings.
- The authoritarian Ottoman Empire, which reigned over Eastern and Central Europe, Greece, and the Habsburg Empire, which controlled over Austria-Hungary, were the major empires in Europe.
Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries :
- The middle class supported individual liberty and legal equality for all people. Liberalism was used to abolish the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy. Following Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat in 1815, conservatism was adopted by the European administration.
- Conservatism was a political theory that emphasised the value of custom, tradition, and established institutions while favouring slow growth over rapid change.
- After 1815, a number of liberals started participating in covert organisations across Europe to spread their ideas and educate revolutionaries. Revolutionaries were suppressed because they were viewed as a danger to the restored monarchs.
- Famous Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807. He created the Young Europe and Young Italy underground groups in Berne and was a member of the secret club known as Carbonari.
- Mazzini was exiled in 1831 for trying to start a revolution in Liguria. Mazzini supported the integration of Italy’s minor kingdoms and principalities. Like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy, and the German states joined these associations.
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Must Remember Topics of The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10
- Utopian vision: A utopian society is one that is envisioned as being so perfect that it is unlikely to ever materialise.
- Absolutism: The term “absolutism” describes a set of rules.
- Plebiscite: A plebiscite is a direct vote in which a proposal is put to the inhabitants of an area. French Revolution: The 1789 French Revolution was a significant occasion that helped to usher in Europe’s age of revolutions. The establishment of a constitutional monarchy and a significant diminution in the royal and feudal privileges were the main results of the revolution.
- Nationalism: The fundamental characteristics of nationalism include a sense of belonging to a society or a government, love and loyalty for one’s motherland, and confidence in the political identity of one’s country.
- A nation-state is a country that identifies as a distinct political and geographical entity and governs its territory as a whole and in its own right. This idea first appeared in Europe in the 19th century as nationalism increased.
- Modern State: A state in which a centralized power exercises dominion over a certain region and population.
- Liberal nationalism is the elimination of governmental limits on the flow of capital and goods, as well as individual freedom, equality before the law, and market freedom.
- Napoleonic Code: The Napoleonic Code was the name given to the 1804 Civil Code that Napoleon implemented. This law safeguarded the property right to property, eliminated any privileges based on birth, and established equality before the law.
- Zollverein: A customs union called the Zollverein was established in 1834 at Prussia’s urging. A total of two currencies were introduced, down from over thirty, and tariff barriers were eliminated.
- Habsburg Empire: The empire that ruled over Austria, Hungary, the Sudetenland, Bohemia, and the Tyrol Alpine regions is known as the Habsburg Empire. The Caliph, the temporal and spiritual head of Muslims, was the ruler of the Ottoman Kingdom, a former Turkish empire.
- Ideology: A body of ideas that represent a specific social and political philosophy.
Famous Personalities in The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
- Frederic Sorrieu :French artist Frederic Sorrieu gained notoriety for a set of four prints created in 1848 that represented the idealised world of “Democratic and Social Republics.”
- Napoleon (1769-1821) :Napoleon was a prominent French military and political figure during the French Revolution. from 1799 to 1815, ruled France became the First Consul in 1799, assuming complete control.
- Giuseppe Mazzini: A well-known Italian revolutionary, Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807. He established two covert organisations, Young Italy in Marseilles and the Carbonari, and was a member of the secretive organisation Carbonari Berne is the young Europe.
- Duke Metternich: The Austrian Chancellor, Duke Metternich, served as both the Treaty of Vienna’s principal architect and host.
Important Dates of Rise Of Nationalism In Europe
- 1797: Napoleon invades Italy, starting the Napoleonic Wars.
- 1804: All privileges based on birth were abolished with the introduction of the Napoleonic Code. uphold fairness under the law.
- 1814-15 : Napoleon’s downfall and the Vienna Peace Accords
- 1821 : Greek independence movement starts
- 1832 : Greece became a sovereign nation.
- 1834: In Prussia, the Zollverein, or Customs Union, was established to eliminate trade restrictions.
- 1848:Revolutions in Europe: Peasants, artisans, and industrial workers rebel against economic sufferings; the middle classes seek representative governments and constitutions; nation-states are desired by Italians, Germans, Hungarians, Poles, and other nationalities.
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