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Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
Quick Review of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes [ Part 2]
A Statutory Commission was established by the British government and headed by Sir John Simon. The Commission was tasked with investigating how India’s constitutional system operates and making recommendations for improvements. But because the Commission’s members were all British, the Indian leaders opposed it.
In 1928, the Simon Commission arrived in India. “Go back Simon” was shouted in response. The demonstration was joined by all parties. Lord Irwin announced an ambiguous promise of “dominion status” for India in October 1929, but the timing was not made clear. Additionally, he volunteered to host a roundtable conference to talk about the proposed Constitution.
Salt March (Starting of Civil Disobedience Movement)
According to Mahatma Gandhi, salt might serve as a potent symbol for bringing the entire country together. The majority of people, especially the British, laughed at the concept. One of Gandhiji’s many demands in a letter to Viceroy Irwin was the repeal of the salt tax.
Gandhiji began the Salt March, also known as the Dandi March, on March 12, 1930. He had 78 volunteers with him.From Sabaramati to Dandi, a distance of 240 miles, they covered on foot over the course of 24 days. They were soon joined by numerous others. Gandhiji ceremonially broke the rule on April 6th, 1930, by grabbing a handful of salt.
Beginning with the Salt March, the Civil Disobedience Movement was born. The ban on salt was broken by thousands of people across the nation. In front of government salt factories, there were protests. One boycotted foreign clothing. Farmers refused to pay taxes. Village representatives resigned. Forest regulations were broken by tribal members.
Response of British government on Civil Disobedience Movement
The leaders of the Congress were first detained by the colonial authorities. As a result, there were violent fights everywhere .A month later, Mahatma Gandhi was taken into custody. The emblems of British control, including police stations, city halls, courthouses, and railroad stations, started to come under attack. The repression by the government was very severe Children and women were also beaten. There were almost 100,000 arrests.
Round Table Conference
Mahatma Gandhi stopped the movement as things started to get violent. On March 5, 1931, he and Irwin inked a contract. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was the name given to this. Gandhiji committed to attend the Round Table Conference in London in accordance with the Pact. In exchange, the administration consented to free the political detainees. In December 1931, Gandhiji travelled to London.
As a result of the failed negotiations, Gandhiji was forced to leave in disappointment. When Gandhiji returned to India, he saw that the majority of the leaders had been imprisoned. It had been ruled illegal to hold Congress. Numerous steps were taken to stop gatherings, protests, and boycotts. Relaunching the Civil Disobedience Movement was Mahatma Gandhi’s idea. The movement had lost steam by 1934.
Flowcharts of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes [ Part 2]
Terms in Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes [ Part 2]
- Civil disobedience: During the Civil Disobedience Movement, individuals were urged to disregard colonial laws in addition to refusing to cooperate with the British.
- Swaraj: The word “Swaraj” denotes independence or autonomy. In 1920, the term “Swaraj” referred to “Self-Government,” either within the empire or outside if required.
- The Simon Commission: The Simon Commission was established by the British New Tory administration and was headed by Sir John Simon. The Commission was sent to India in order to assess how the country’s constitutional system is operating and make recommendations for improvement. In 1928, it made its way to India.
- Salt Law: One of the most fundamental ingredients in meals worldwide, salt is consumed by both the wealthy and the poor. In India, salt manufacturing was controlled by the British government. The government targeted both the rich and the poor, but especially the poor, by enacting a “salt tax.” Gandhiji viewed it as the British government’s most oppressive law and made the decision to flout it by breaching the “Salt Law.”
- Gandhi Irwin Pact: Mahatama Gandhiji chose to end the Civil Disobedience Movement as the British government retaliated with a programme of violent repression. On March 5, 1931, he made a deal with Lord Irwin. Gandhiji agreed to attend a Round Table Conference in London as part of this agreement.
Important Dates of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes [ Part 2]
- 1920 : The Congress Leader was not pleased with the growing Awadhi peasant movement.
- 1921 : In the Andhra Pradesh Gudem Hills, a violent guerrilla movement grew. By Alluri Sitaram Raju, a movement was formed.
- 1921-1922 : Foreign clothing imports were cut in half. Jawahar Lal Nehru touring an Awadh hamlet in June 1920.
- February, 1922 : .Gandhi made the decision to end the non-cooperation movement. the founding of the Swaraj Party by C.R. Dass and Motilal Nehru.
- 1924 :Raju was apprehended and killed.
- 1928 : Simon Commission come in india
- 1928 : The Hindustan Socialist Republican Army’s founding (HSRA).
- October 1929: Lord Irwin made an ambiguous promise of “Dominion Status” for India.
- In October 1929, the J.L. Nehru-led Oudh Kisan Sabha was established.
- Demand for Purna Swaraj made at the Congress’ Lahore session in December 1929.
- January 26th, 1930 was observed as Independence Day.
- Gandhiji wrote Viceroy Irwin a letter on January 31, 1930, outlining 11 requests.
- Abdul Ghaffar Khan was detained in April 1930.
- On April 6, 1930, Gandhiji broke the Salt Law when the salt march reached Dandi.
- 1930: First Round Table Conference; Salt Satyagraha; Civil Disobedience Movement continues. Gandhi’s Dandi March.
- Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed on March 5, 1931.
- Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference in December 1931.
- Second Round Table Conference, Irwin-Gandhi Pact, and Indian Census all occurred in 1931.
- 1932: Third Round Table Conference and the suppression of the Congress movement.
- Poona Pact between Gandhiji and Ambedkar, signed in September 1932.
- Civil Disobedience Movement suspended in 1934.
- Civil Disobedience Movement lost steam in 1934.
- 1935 saw the Royal Assent of the Government of India Act.
Conclusion of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes [ Part 2]
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