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Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
Quick Review of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
- Effects of First World War: Defense spending significantly increased as a result of the War. Loans for the war and an increase in taxes were used to pay for it. In order to generate more money, customs taxes were increased and income tax was implemented. During the years of the conflict, prices rose. Between 1913 and 1918, the prices doubled. The average person suffered the most as a result of the price increase. Another thing that made people quite angry was the army’s forced enlistment of rural residents.
- There was a severe food scarcity in several areas of India due to crop failure.The flu outbreak made the situation worse. According to the census taken in 1921, famines and epidemics claimed the lives of between 12 and 13 million people.
The Idea of Satyagraha
Satyagraha, a novel kind of public agitation that Mahatma Gandhi supported. Based on the notion that using physical force to resist the oppressor is not necessary if one is fighting for a worthy cause, Delhi adopted this strategy. Gandhiji held that a satyagrahi may prevail in a conflict without resorting to violence, that is, without being hostile or spiteful.
Several early Satyagraha campaigns Gandhiji spearheaded include:
- The 1916 Peasants’ Movement in Champaran, Bihar.
- The Peasants’ Movement in 1917 in Gujarat’s Kheda district.
- The Mill Workers’ Movement in 1918 at Ahmedabad.
The Rowlatt Act(1919):
The Imperial Legislative Council passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. The Indian members were against
the Act, yet it was nonetheless approved. The Act granted the government broad authority to stifle political opposition activities. It permitted the two-year incarceration of political detainees without charge or trial.
On 6th April, 1919:
Gandhiji started a massive Satyagraha across the country to protest the planned Rowlatt Act. Huge support was shown for the call to strike on April 6. Numerous cities had large turnouts of supporters, stores were closed, and workers at railway workshops went on strike. The British government made the decision to crack down on nationalists. A number of municipal authorities were detained. Entry into Delhi was prohibited for Mahatma Gandhi.
Jallianwalla Bagh incident :
A peaceful procession was shot at by the police in Amritsar on April 10, 1919. Widespread attacks on government buildings resulted from this. In Amritsar, martial law was enacted, and the locality’s command was transferred to Colonel Dyer
The horrific Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre occurred on April 13, which is also Baisakhi Day in Punjab. Villagers from all around gathered to Jallianwalla Bagh to take part in a fair. There were little entryways and it was completely enclosed on all sides. General Dyer closed down the exits and started shooting at the throng. There were hundreds of fatalities in the incident.
In several north Indian towns, the public’s response to the tragedy descended into violence. The response from the authorities was fairly harsh. Things suddenly turned violently. Because he did not want the bloodshed to continue, Mahatma Gandhi put an end to the movement.
Khilafat Movement :
Mahatma Gandhi had the chance to unite Hindus and Muslims over the Khilafat controversy. During the First World War, Ottoman Turkey suffered a terrible defeat. Rumors circulated that the Ottoman ruler, the Khalifa, the spiritual leader of the Islamic world, would be subjected to a terrible peace pact. In March 1919, a Khilafat committee was established in Bombay to support the Khalifa. Leaders on this committee included the Ali brothers, Muhammad and Shaukat.
In order to organise a cohesive mass action, they also wanted Mahatma Gandhi to take up the cause. The resolution to start a Non-Cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and also for swaraj was approved at the Congress’ Calcutta session in September 1920.
Non-Cooperation Movement :
Mahatma Gandhi wrote in his well-known book Hind Swaraj (1909) that Indian cooperation was essential in the establishment of British authority in India and was the only reason it had endured. British rule in India would end in a year if Indians failed to cooperate, and swaraj would then take over. Gandhiji thought that the British rulers would have no choice but to leave India if Indians started to refuse to cooperate.
Some of the proposals of Non-Cooperation Movement :
- Relinquish any titles granted by the British government.
- A boycott of the judiciary, police, army, courts, legislative councils, and educational institutions.
- Boycotting imports is option
- Begin a complete campaign of civil disobedience if the government continued to take oppressive measures.
Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
- [Part 1] Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
- [Part 2] Work, Life And Leisure Class 10 History Notes
Differing Strands within the Movement :
In January 1921, the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement got underway. This movement included members from a variety of social groupings, each of which had its own distinct goals. They all heeded the call of Swaraj, although various people had varied interpretations of the phrase.
Baba Ramchandra served as the leader of the Awadh peasant movement. He was a sanyasi who had previously performed indentured labour in Fiji. The peasants objected to the hefty rents and various other cess that talukdars and landlords wanted. The oppressive landowners were to be socially boycotted as well as their repressive practises to be reduced in revenue and abolished.
Tribal Peasants :
The tribal peasants explained how they saw Mahatma Gandhi and the concept of swaraj. Outside of Delhi, the tribal people were forbidden from going into the jungles to graze their livestock or to gather firewood and fruits. Their way of life outside of Delhi was at danger due to the new forest laws. They were obliged by the government to work poorly on road building.
Swaraj Movement in the Plantations:
According to Indian law, plantation employees were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without authorization.1859 Emigration Act Several employees joined the Non-Cooperation Movement when word of it reached the plantations. started to challenge the authorities. They left the plantations and moved closer to their residences. However, they became stuck on due to a railway and steamboat strike, the route. The police apprehended them and mercilessly beat them up.
Some Flowcharts of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
Terms in Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
- Nationalism: Nationalism is the strong identification of a group of people with a political entity that is defined in terms of their own country, or a nation.
- Satyagrah: Satyagraha is a power that is born out of truth. When Mahatma Gandhi visited South Africa, he introduced this idea. It is predicated on the principles of honesty and nonviolence.
- Khalifa: The leader of Islam’s spirituality.
- Begar: Forced labour performed by locals without compensation.
- Forced Recruitment : Forced recruitment was a method the colonial government used to compel people to enlist in the military.
- Rowlatt Act: This law provided the government sweeping authority to suppress political activity. It permitted the government to detain anyone for two years without a trial.
Glimpses of India Summaries
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre : 13th April, 1919
For the annual Baisakhi fair in Amritsar, a large crowd had gathered near Jallianwala Bagh. Hundreds of people were killed when General Dyer surrounded the park and started shooting at the throng.
- Non- Cooperation Movement : Started in January 1921. This movement’s primary goal was not to support products made in Britain. In addition to a thorough campaign of civil disobedience, it called for the renunciation of all official titles, a boycott of foreign goods and services as well as the army, police, courts, and legislative bodies.
- Swadeshi: The Swadeshi movement called for the boycott of British goods and the resurgence of locally produced goods and manufacturing methods.
- Boycott : A boycott is a type of consumer activism that entails the voluntary refraining from using, purchasing from, or doing business with a person, organisation, or nation as a means of protest, typically for political reasons.
- Picket: A type of protest or demonstration in which people obstruct a store, factory, or office’s entry.
Important Dates of Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
- The Indian National Congress held its inaugural meeting in Bombay in 1885.
- The Partition of Bengal was formally established in 1905.
- 1906 saw the founding of the Muslim League.
- From 1913 through 1918, prices doubled due to the war.
- The First World War lasted from 1914 to 1918.
- 1917 saw the founding of the Satyagraha Movement in Kheda District by Mahatma Gandhi (Gujarat).
- 1918 saw the founding of the Satyagraha Movement in Ahmedabad by Mahatma Gandhi.
- 1919 saw the passage of the Rowlatt Act, which granted the government vast authority to suppress political activity and permitted the two-year incarceration of political prisoners without charge.
- The police in Amritsar opened fire on a peaceful parade on April 10, 1919. It was put under martial law.
- Crop collapse in 1918–19 and 1920–1921.
- The Khilafat Committee was established in Bombay in March 1919.
- The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre occurred on April 13, 1919.
- Congress met in Calcutta in September 1920 and decided to launch a non-cooperation movement in favour of both Swaraj and the Khilafat.
- 1920: The Congress is led by Mahatma Gandhi, and the Non-Cooperation Movement is started.
- Congress met in Nagpur in December 1920 a compromise was reached and the non-cooperation platform was endorsed.
- Famines and a pandemic in 1921.
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